Container freight knowledge

- Jul 30, 2018-

1. Containers (container) 
     The so-called container, is a certain strength, stiffness and specifications designed for the use of large loading container turnover. Use of container transhipment cargo can be shipped directly from a warehouse loading, unloading delivered to the consignee's warehouse, half-way to replace cars, boats, without the goods are taken from their facelift. Different types according to the load, there are grocery containers, bulk containers, liquid cargo containers reefer containers, etc.; by manufacturing materials, points, wooden containers, steel containers, aluminum containers, glass, steel containers, stainless steel containers, etc.; by structural sub - , there are foldable containers, fixed containers, etc., in the fixed container can also be sub-closed container, open top containers, plate rack containers, etc.; by total weight of points, there are 30 tons of containers, 20 tons of containers, 10 tons of containers, 5 tons of containers, 2.5 tons of container and so on. 
2. Container external dimensions (container's overall external dimensions) 
     Including container outside the container, including permanent attachments greatest length, width and height dimensions. It is to determine whether the container ship, the chassis cars, trucks, rail vehicles, the main parameters between the facelift. Is the transport sector must grasp an important technical information. 
3. Container sizes (container's internal dimensions) 
     The largest container within the length, width and height dimensions. Height of the roof box Xiangdi board to the bottom of the distance, lining the inside of a width of 2 the distance between the side gate length is the amount of box-to-end distance between the wall lining boards. It decided to contents of the container product and the maximum size cargo box. 
4. Contents of the container product (container's unobstructed capacity) 
Calculated according to size of container loading capacity. The same size container, due to the structure and manufacture of materials different from the contents of a slightly different plot. Contents of the container product is a department or other packing material must grasp the important technical information. 
5. Container unit (twenty-feet equivalent units referred to as: teu) 
     Also known as the 20-foot conversion unit, is to calculate the number of conversion units in the container box. Most of current national container transport, have adopted a 20-foot and 40 foot-long two kinds of containers. In order to calculate the number of unified Container to 20-foot container as a unit, as the two 40-foot container unit in order to facilitate the operation of a unified calculation of the amount of container. 
6. Container Leasing (container leasing) 
     Namely, the use of all of the empty containers leased to a business person. Container owner for rental of one container, with the use of people, generally shipping companies or shippers, in order to rent a party, the two sides signed a lease contract. To provide qualified by the lessor by the lessee of the container used within the scope of the agreement. Container leasing, the international community there are several different ways to sum it all up are: Cheng rent, rental period, demand for rental and rent-flight zone blocking and so on. 
7. Container handling area (container terminal) 
     Is the container transport, container or cargo loading and unloading the exchange of custody of the specific handling department. It is subject to the carrier or its agent commissioned to conduct the following business: 
     1. For FCL freight exchange, custody; 
     2. With container freight stations who handle LCL handover; 
     3. Arrangements for container ship berthing, loading and unloading containers, preparation of load plans for each voyage; 
     4. To handle the freight documents prepared to sign; 
     5. Compile and check the use of means of delivery, access to container inspection, and the transfer of relevant documents; 
     6. Handling containers and vehicles, loading and unloading of tools, inspection, maintenance, and empty containers of cleaning, fumigation, etc.; 
     7. Empty boxes of sending and receiving, storage and custody; 
     8. Arrangements for empty containers and re-stacking boxes in the yard, and the preparation of space allocation plan; 
     9. Other related operations. 
     Container handling areas are generally from the wharf front, yard, freight station, control tower, repair department, gates and offices. Sometimes freight yard, or station may be extended to 5-15 km in urban districts do a transit point. 
8. Containers in front yard (marshalling yard) 
     Refers to the front of the container terminal, in order to speed up the loading and unloading ships, temporary stacking of containers venues. Its role is to: When the container ship to Hong Kong prior to a planned orderly stowage requirements will be exported by the container to focus stacked neatly, ship unloader will be the temporary importation of containers stacked in front of the pier in order to speed up the loading and unloading ships. 
9. Container rear yard (container yard) 
     Container weight boxes or empty containers for transfer, storage and stockpiling of the place. Some countries are not sub-container yard in front yard or rear yard, collectively known as the yard. Container rear yard is an integral part of the container handling areas. Is the container transport "field presence" mode of the transfer of the transfer of FCL cargo handling places (actually in the container loading and unloading area "gate" to the handover). 
10. Empty container yard (van pool) 
     Specifically deal with empty collection, storage, stockpiling or transfer of venue. It is designed for container handling area or lack of transfer station yard when I set up. This does not apply for re-yard box or the cargo transfer. It can be a separate operation, also by container handling areas outside the region, separate. Some countries, such empty container yard operators, shipping lines are required to the statement. 
11. Transit station or within a Road Station (container depot or inland depot) 
     Outside the harbor, a transit station or container transportation hub. In addition to its role there is no Container ship loading and unloading operations, the rest are the same as with the container terminal business. Transit station or inland station measurement, including container handling Hong Kong's urban transit stations, inland cities, river ports inland stations are included. 
12. Container Freight Station (container freight station referred to as: cfs) 
     For the LCL boxing and unboxing of the ship, cargo handling the transfer of two sites. The carrier in a port or inland cities can only be entrusted to a container freight station operators. Behalf of the carrier by its handling of the following main business: 
     1. LCL's tally and transfer; 
     2. Exterior inspection of goods subject to unusual form, and then arranged to endorsement; 
     3. LCL distribution box stowage and packing; 
     4. Imported goods unboxing unboxing and custody; 
     5. On behalf of the carrier plus seals and the issuance of a receipt point; 
     6. Handling and preparation of various documents such as. 
13. The responsibility of the shipper (shipper's liabilities) 
     The shipper in the container transport due responsibility, this responsibility is not entirely the same as a traditional sea side. LCL responsibility of the shipper the same as the traditional sea. FCL shipper's liability is different from the traditional transport are: 
     1. Shall ensure that cargo information reported in the correct and complete; 
     2. The carrier the right to check the box load, due to the cost incurred in check, there is the shipper; 
     3. Customs or other authority out of the box inspection, its costs and the resultant poor cargo cargo damage by the shipper; 
     4. If dissatisfied with the container cargo or dunnage bad, stowage improperly installed or not suitable for container transport of goods, thus giving rise cargo damage, cargo poor, takes responsibility of the shipper; 
     5. Such as the use of the shipper's own non-airworthy container, cargo damage caused by accident, the shipper shall be responsible; 
     6. In the use of containers and equipment during the carrier causing damage to third party property or life should be the shipper to pay compensation. 
14. Limitation of Liability (limits of liability) 
Container cargo damage incurred in shipping goods is poor, the carrier should bear the maximum amount of compensation. LCL's limitation of liability the same as with the traditional transportation. FCL compensation in accordance with the current number of international jurisprudence: If not specified in the bill of lading the goods loaded box number, each box as a claims unit; as specified in the bill of lading cargo box number of pieces, and based upon the number of pieces calculation; the damage and loss if the goods do not belong to sea, but took place in the inland transport, according to the maximum amount of compensation apply for land transport; such as containers by the shipper or the provision of all time, in the event of loss or damage, The carrier should bear its responsibilities are indeed those who should be regarded as a claims unit. 
15. The same responsibility (uniform liability system) 
     Transport operators to liability for damage to the goods of a liability regime. According to this system, unified by a through bill of lading issued by the carrier transport of the cargo owners bear full responsibility for the cargo damage occurred regardless of discrepancy in which a transport stage, according to the same responsibility for content. If we can identify the damage of the transport stage, the transport carrier in compensation after the segment can be transported to the actual carrier recovery. 
16. Reticular responsibility (network liability system) 
     Transport operators to liability for damage to the goods of a liability regime. According to this system, combined transport bill of lading issued by the carrier, although still negative whole cargo transportation responsibility, but the event of damages not like the same responsibility as the injury occurred, but by the responsibility of the transport phase responsible for the content. For example, the damage occurred in maritime transport phase, in accordance with international shipping rules apply; such as occurred in the railway or road transport stage, according to relevant international law or domestic law. 
17. Shipping Container Association Rules (container rules of freight conference) 
     In some countries, container ship route, the shipping lines in order to monopolize their respective container shipping routes, have developed a supplier were used in container transport rules. These rules, is done by the Association for the Association of routes operating within the scope of the situation developed. Accordingly, the Association's rules vary in content, but the basic spirit is the same, that is the responsibility of both cargo is the same. Rules to be generally include the following aspects: 
     1. Container handling port, distribution transportation; 
     2. Container transport-specific terminology to explain; 
     3. The transfer mode of transport both cargo liability; 
     4. Booking procedures and the declaration of cargo information; 
     5. All kinds of provisions include bills of lading, plus grant provisions, the terms port and accidents terms; 
     6. Bills of lading issued; 
     7. Equipment, transfer procedures, use of free time and demurrage charges accrued income; 
     8. Delivery procedures; 
     9. Freight calculation and payment; 
     10. A variety of cost items total income approach, rates of change provisions; 
     11. Currency, devaluation, value-added requirement; 
     12. Inland transportation requirements and fees. 
18. Handover means (receiving and delivery system) 
     Container transport, FCL and LCL cargo in the transfer of cargo between the two sides in the following ways: 
     1. Door to Door (door to door): by the shipper is responsible for loading the containers, warehouses or factories in their libraries to pay the carrier's acceptance will be responsible for the entire transport, until the consignee's warehouse or factory warehouse until delivery box. This whole connection transport, known as the "door to door" transport; 
     2. The door to the scene (door to cy): by the consignor warehouse or factory warehouse to the destination or port of unloading boxes yard container handling area. ; 
     3. Gate arrival (door to cfs): by the consignor warehouse or factory warehouse to the port of destination or unloading boxes container freight stations; 
     4. Field-to-door (cy to door): from the port of departure or in packing yard container handling area to the consignee's warehouse or factory warehouse; 
     5. Field arrived at the scene (cy to cy): from the port of departure or in packing yard container handling area to the destination or port of unloading boxes yard container handling areas; 
     6. Field arrival (cy to cfs): from the port of departure or in packing yard container handling area to the destination or port of unloading boxes container freight stations; 
     7. Point-to-door (cfs to door): from the port of departure or in packing container freight station to the consignee's warehouse or factory warehouse; 
     8. Station arrived at the scene (cfs to cy): Hong Kong from the place of dispatch or in packing container freight station to the destination or port of unloading boxes yard container handling areas; 
     9. Station to station (cfs to cfs): from the port of departure or in packing container freight station to the destination or the port of unloading boxes container freight station. 

19. FCL (full container load for short: fcl) 
     Relative terms for the LCL. By the consignor is responsible for packing, counting, stowage and seals plus freight. FCL of devanning, generally handled by the consignee. But can also be entrusted to the carrier in cargo terminal devanning. But the carrier is not responsible for the inside of the cargo damage, cargo poor. Unless the cargo carrier accidents are indeed proof of damage, the carrier was liable to pay compensation. FCL cargo carrier, to box for the transfer of units. As long as the container box when you close similarity in appearance and seals integrity and responsibility of the carrier's carrier is complete. FCL freight bill of lading, it is necessary to add "the principal packing, count and add Seal" clause. 
20. LCL (less than container load short: lcl) 
FCL relative terms, refers to a small installation dissatisfied with a FCL shipment. Such goods are usually separate canvassing by the carrier and container freight station or inland station to focus, but after more than two votes, or two votes of goods assembled in a container, the same in the destination container freight station or within the Lu Station unboxing delivery, respectively. For such goods, the carrier to pay boxing and unboxing operations, equipment cost is still the cargo devanning charge. The responsibility of the carrier on the LCL is basically the same as with the traditional grocery transportation. 
21. Cases the median (number of slots) 
Full container ships can record the number of container boxes. Each one dedicated full-container ships, are based on a 20-foot conversion unit indicated that it contained the amount box. 
22. Slot (slots) 
In the container yard, in accordance with the corresponding scale container painted with the rules for the direction of the Grid container stacking location. In the slot on the assigned numbers in order to facilitate shipment. 
23. Paihao (bay number) 
The dedicated horizontal container ship stowage position. No way is from bow to stern so marked: 01,02,03 ... .... 
24. Line number (row number) 
Also known as the column number, the container ship's column dedicated stowage position. There are two labeling methods: one is the right side from the port side so marked: 01,02 ... ... the other is from the middle of the left and right sub-standard. Port side is a single number, compiled from the midline to the left as follows: 01,03,05 ... ..., the center line to the starboard compiled pairs of numbers: 02,04,06 ... .... 
25. Layer Road (tier number) 
Container ship in the special legislation contained in the volume position. No method of sub-deck and the two kinds of warehouses. The numbers from top to bottom so the deck number, and in front of a number of "d" word. The numbers from top to bottom so the cabin number, and in front of a number of "h" word. 
26. Slot number (slot number) 
Container stowage position on board. Consists of six digits, the first two figures are Paihao the middle two figures are line number, the latter two figures is the layer number. Such as slot 0402d1 to indicate the container stowage in the fourth row of the second line of the starboard side deck, first floor. 
27. Container load plan (pre-stowage plan) 
     Container ship packing scheme plans. Working areas, according to boxing. Stowage plan by the Ocean Shipping Agency, according to booking list, packing and yard, but stowage planning. And approval of ship in the ship arrived in Hong Kong after obtaining the consent shall be immediately loaded. In the case of half-way through Hong Kong, the ship has been equipped with a container, the information should be telephoned on the boat stowage, and so on, according to call back later to compile. Stowage plan is a container ship for each column and each row of which constitute a cross-sectional stratification. To load, it must meet the following requirements: 
     1. Ensure that the ship vertical section of the strength and stability of ships; 
     2. Maintain the desired draft is poor, so that the ship to obtain the best results in navigation performance, that is, good handling and quickness; 
     3. The most rational use of the ship's deadweight and space capacity; 
     4. To ensure integrity of containers in the cabin and on deck safety; 
     5. To consider the ease of loading and unloading operations; 
     6. Multi-port loading and unloading, we must note the following port of loading and unloading by turning not to create space. 
28. Station Receipt (dock receipt) 
     The carrier commissioned by the container handling areas, transfer station or inland station received FCL or LCL issued after receipt. Station receipts prepared by the consignor. Like a number of cargo containers equipped with a few hours before packing but the virtue of acceptance, until the final acceptance of a container is completed only when the administrator stops by the Hong Kong Station sign on the receipt. Station received FCL goods, such as the appearance or LCL loaded box packaging appearance are unusual form, should be added endorsement. The role of Station receipts, equivalent to traditional transportation of the mate receipt, it is the shipper a bill of lading to the shipping company in exchange for certificates. 
29. EIR (equipment receipt) 
     Commissioned by the container owner or hirer of the container handling areas, transfer station or inland station and cargo-use boxes or on behalf of carriage between the transfer of containers and equipment certificate. Transfer of a single by the carrier or his agent issued to the cargo, according to the area, stop to receive or return of heavy boxes or light boxes. The transfer of a single printed on the back transfer of the first terms of use, the main contents of cargo containers and equipment used in the period, the resulting costs, and in case of equipment and the load event of damage, loss of the division of responsibilities, and the occurrence of a third party damages commitment. Equipment transfer in general area, station entrance processing. Equipment, including containers, chassis, cars, trolleys and motors. The transfer of a single sub-"go out" and "door" two.